Saturday, February 24, 2024

Leveraging Automated Testing in the Waterfall Model: A Step-by-Step Guide

In the realm of software development methodologies, the waterfall model stands as a classic approach, guiding projects through sequential stages from requirements gathering to maintenance. Traditionally, manual testing has been the go-to method within this framework. However, the integration of automated testing can revolutionize the way software is developed, bringing efficiency, reliability, and agility to the waterfall model. In this blog post, we'll delve into the implementation of automated testing within the waterfall model, uncovering its benefits and providing actionable insights for adoption.

Understanding the Waterfall Model

The waterfall model follows a linear progression, where each phase flows sequentially into the next:

  1. Requirements: Gathering and documenting project requirements.
  2. Design: Creating system and software designs based on the requirements.
  3. Implementation: Coding and unit testing based on the design.
  4. Testing: Comprehensive testing to validate the system against requirements.
  5. Maintenance: Ongoing support and updates post-deployment.

Benefits of Automated Testing in Waterfall

Automated testing injects efficiency and reliability into the waterfall model:

  • Efficiency: Automated tests execute quickly, reducing testing time and effort.
  • Early Detection: Bugs are caught earlier in the process, minimizing their impact.
  • Regression Testing: Automated tests ensure that existing features remain intact when new ones are added.

Key Considerations for Implementation

To effectively implement automated testing in the waterfall model, consider the following:

  1. Test Planning: Define testing objectives for each phase.
  2. Tool Selection: Choose tools aligned with project needs and team expertise.
  3. Test Case Design: Develop thorough test cases covering all scenarios.
  4. Test Execution: Integrate automated tests into the development process.
  5. Test Maintenance: Regularly update and maintain test suites to reflect changes.

Phased Approach to Automated Testing

Implement automated testing across the waterfall phases:

  • Requirements Phase: Develop tests based on documented requirements.
  • Design Phase: Validate design specifications through automated tests.
  • Implementation Phase: Execute unit, integration, and system tests.
  • Testing Phase: Conduct comprehensive automated regression testing.
  • Maintenance Phase: Utilize automated tests for ongoing support.

Best Practices and Tips

  • Foster collaboration among team members involved in testing.
  • Establish clear communication channels for sharing test results.
  • Invest in training to empower team members with automation skills.


Automated testing brings a new level of efficiency and reliability to the waterfall model, enhancing software quality and accelerating development cycles. By strategically integrating automated tests into each phase and adhering to best practices, teams can navigate the waterfall model with confidence, delivering high-quality software that meets stakeholder expectations. Embrace automation, and transform your waterfall projects into streamlined and agile endeavors.

Monday, February 19, 2024

Of Kanye West and Anti-Semitism

So after contesting for President in the US, Kanye West has found himself divorced from his long-time wife and also in conflict with the Jews. He has apologised several times but problems don't seem to have an end for him. He has recently released an album which seems to be doing well in the charts but has many had its dose of problems being pulled off the streaming platforms. Is he going to be cancelled like R. Kelly was cancelled? That gives quite little hope for black people.  

Is Kanye West Anti-Semitic?

Kanye West claims that black people can't be Anti-Semitic because Black people are Jewish. It is my observation that he is not the first black person to make such a claim. There is a movement among black people that pushes such a history claiming that black people are Jewish. Windsor R. Rudolf makes a claim in his book From Babylon to Timbuktu: A History of the Ancient Black Races Including the Black Hebrews that Abram was a black semite. 

The author discusses the origins of the Hamites and Shemites (or Semites). He states that the original Israelites were of the Black race and that the biblical Abraham (or Abram) was a Black Shemite (a descendant of Shem). Abraham was the father of both the Hebrew-Israelite and Arab nations. The Black Shemites intermarried with Black Hamite Egyptian women, giving rise to the Arab nation. The author also states that Arabia was originally inhabited by the Ethiopians (also known as Cushites) prior to the progenitors of the Arabs. Many of today's Arabs are not Black due to the introduction of white slavery. 


It is possible that Kanye West got caught up in this narrative and believes that black people are Jews. 

Why am I saying this? It seems to make a claim that black people are Jews is anti-semitic. I had to confirm this on ChatGPT:


Is it anti-Semitic to say black people are Jews?


Yes, it can be considered anti-semitic to suggest that all Black people are Jewish or to equate the two as interchangeable terms. Making such a statement could perpetuate harmful stereotypes and contribute to the erasure of Jewish identity and experiences. It's important to be mindful of the implications of the language we use and to avoid making assumptions or generalizations about any group of people based on race, religion, or ethnicity. Promoting understanding and respect for diverse identities is essential in fostering a more inclusive and equitable society.

Should Kanye's belief be the reason for cancelling him? A right to opinion is what he has. A right to life and livelihood is what he has. Considerably, since such a belief is common among the black people in America who have known only adversity all their lives, cancelling Kanye West for believing he is Jewish is equivalent to cancelling all black people who hold such a belief. That in itself is as bad against the black people is anti-semitism is bad against the "Jews".

The First White Person on Earth

 Here is an extract from the Book of Enoch concerning the birth of Noah:

Methuselah took a wife for his son Lamech, and she bore him a man-child. The body of the babe was white as snow and red as a blooming rose, and the hair of his head and his long locks were white as wool, and his eyes like the rays of the sun. When he opened his eyes, he lighted up the whole house, like the sun, and the whole house was very full of light. And when he was taken from the hand of the midwife, he opened his mouth and praised the Lord of righteousness. His father Lamech was afraid of him and fled, and came to his own father Methuselah. And he said to him: "I have begotten a strange son; he is not like a human being but resembles the children of the angels of heaven, and his nature is different, and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and his countenance is glorious. And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me, but from the angels, and I fear that in his days a wonder may be wrought on the earth. And now, my father, I am here to petition thee and implore thee, that thou mayest go to Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his dwelling place is among the angels." 

Source: 1 Enoch 106 

It seems the first white person on earth was Noah. All people before Noah were black people. That is what I personally came to believe after reading the Book of Enoch. Should be also cancelled for such an understanding? I did not write the Book of Enoch. I just stumbled upon it and read it. I cannot unread it even if cancelled. For me as a black person, it gives an understanding that God created Adam as a Black person and his descendants were also black until Noah. Perhaps, Cain was also white according to his description in the Bible. It is possible that this might not have been the case with his descendants or they were isolated from the descendants of Seth such that the birth of Noah was a strange happening.

Such beliefs that we have whether true or false are a matter of opinion. A human right. But if one has to be cancelled for an opinion it becomes a matter of life and death to the extent he can make a "death-con" post on Twitter to defend himself from the Jews who have ganged up against him for his belief.

Wednesday, November 29, 2023

Empower Malawi Government to Establish New Companies for Economic Intervention

So the Malawi Government seem to have a way of disposing of State-Owned companies but does not seem to have a way of establishing new companies.

The current situation which sees importing more than it exports, seems to require an intervention such as establishing companies to manufacture high-quality substitute products and services to reduce dependence on imports and also to manufacture products for exports from the raw materials we produce so as to increase the value of exports. Just the imposition of import taxes and devaluation does not seem to be a sustainable solution for managing the import and export balance.

Normally in the capitalist economy, it is expected that entrepreneurs would see the need to manufacture substitute products for local consumption and for exports but for some reason, Malawian entrepreneurs are not taking this opportunity to establish new companies. Thus a direct intervention from the government itself to establish new companies seem to be important.

Where international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank often require the government to dispose of its state-owned companies through privatisation, the Malawi Government may still establish companies through the Public-Private Partnership Model. So apart from empowering the Public Private Partnership Commission to dispose of state-owned companies, the commission must also be empowered to establish new companies. In this way, direct intervention of the economy in filling the economic resource gaps would be ensured.

We don't need to devalue our currency or impose high import taxes(an indirect intervention) to manage the trade deficit when we can just establish new manufacturing companies(a direct intervention) for import substitution and export value addition and diversification where entrepreneurs are failing to achieve this.

Sunday, November 26, 2023

Understanding Cost of Living Adjustments (COLA) Using the Consumer Price Index (CPI)

Cost of Living Adjustment (COLA) is a crucial concept for individuals and organizations aiming to maintain financial equilibrium in the face of inflation. The formula for calculating COLA using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a valuable tool in adjusting salaries and other payments to account for changes in the cost of living. In this article, we'll delve into the formula and its significance.

The Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The Consumer Price Index is a measure that examines the average change in prices paid by consumers for goods and services over time. It serves as a vital indicator of inflation, reflecting how the cost of living evolves. The CPI is often used as a benchmark to calculate COLA, ensuring that adjustments align with the changing economic landscape.

The Formula for Calculating the Inflation Rate

\[ \text{Inflation Rate} = \left( \frac{\text{CPI}_{\text{New}} - \text{CPI}_{\text{Old}}}{\text{CPI}_{\text{Old}}} \right) \times 100 \]

To calculate the inflation rate, subtract the old (base) CPI from the new CPI, divide by the old CPI, and multiply the result by 100. This formula expresses the percentage change in the CPI over a given period, indicating the overall inflation rate.

The Formula for Determining COLA

\[ \text{COLA} = \text{Inflation Rate} \times \text{Current Salary} \]

Once the inflation rate is established, applying it to the current salary yields the Cost of Living Adjustment. This adjustment reflects the percentage change in the cost of living, allowing individuals and organizations to adapt to the economic shifts caused by inflation.

Alternatively, a direct formula using CPI values is:

\[ \text{COLA} = \left( \frac{\text{CPI}_{\text{New}}}{\text{CPI}_{\text{Old}}} \right) \times \text{Current Salary} - \text{Current Salary} \]

This formula calculates the adjusted salary by considering the ratio of the new and old CPI values. The difference between this adjusted salary and the current salary represents the COLA.

Significance of COLA and CPI

  • Maintaining Purchasing Power: COLA ensures that individuals' purchasing power remains relatively constant despite the rise in the cost of living. It is a mechanism to safeguard against the eroding effects of inflation on real income.
  • Fair Compensation: Organizations use COLA to provide fair and equitable compensation to employees. Adjusting salaries based on changes in the CPI helps to align compensation with the economic realities employees face.
  • Economic Planning: Governments and businesses use CPI and COLA data for economic planning. It assists in making informed decisions regarding fiscal policies, budgeting, and resource allocation.

Considerations and Variations

  • Specific Components: The CPI is composed of various components, each with its own weight. Some organizations may use a specific subset of the CPI or adjust weights to tailor the index to their needs.
  • Frequency of Adjustments: The frequency of COLA adjustments varies. Some entities make annual adjustments, while others might do so more or less frequently.
  • Geographical Variations: Inflation rates can vary by region. Organizations may consider regional CPI values to make more localized adjustments.


Understanding the formula for calculating COLA using CPI is essential for individuals and organizations navigating the dynamic landscape of inflation. By staying attuned to changes in the cost of living, individuals can protect their purchasing power, and organizations can maintain fair and competitive compensation practices. As economic conditions evolve, the COLA formula serves as a valuable tool for adapting to the ever-changing financial landscape.

Thursday, October 26, 2023

The Land of Canaan: Whose Land Is It?

With the conflict going on between the Israelites and the Palestinians, the question arises: Whose land is it? From the Book of Genesis to the Book of Joshua, it is called the Land of Canaan. But who is Canaan? Canaan is the grandson of Noah who was cursed because of the sin of his father Ham when he made fun of Noah's nakedness. Genesis 9:18 - 27 tells the story of how this happened. Canaan was cursed to be a slave of Shem and a slave of Japhet. 

The sons of Ham were Cush, Egypt, Libya and Canaan and their ancestors are said to bear their names. Canaan too had descendants and a land in which his descendants dwelled. The Land of Canaan. The Land God promised to give to Abraham and his descendants.

Did God give the Land of Canaan to Abraham and his descendants to wipe the Canaanites from the face of the Earth? I think not. When God was making a covenant with Abraham(then Abram) in Genesis 15, he told him that his descendants would be slaves in a foreign land. Abraham was a descendant of Shem and not of Canaan and according to the curse, Canaanites were supposed to be slaves of the descendants of Abraham. However, God decided that the descendants of Abraham suffer slavery and cruelty in a foreign land before coming to possess the land of Canaan. I believe God did this so that the descendants of Abraham could develop empathy regarding slavery before coming into the Land of Canaan. 

Gibeon was a Canaanite and later an Israelite city, which was located north of Jerusalem. According to Joshua 11:19, the pre-Israelite-conquest inhabitants, the Gibeonites, were Hivites; according to 2 Samuel 21:2, they were Amorites. - Wikipedia.

The Book of Joshua in chapter 9 tells the story of how the Gibeonites made a treaty with the People of Israel. I believe that such wisdom as would be required for the Gibeonites to make the treaty the way they did, could be possible with revelation from God. So as a result of this treaty, Gibeonites ended up being workers in the Houses of God. I believe it is better to be a servant in the House of God than to be a slave of Shem or of Japhet. Even David testifies in Psalm 84:10

Better is one day in your courts than a thousand elsewhere; I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God than dwell in the tents of the wicked. - Psalms 84:10

 As a result of the treaty between Gibeonites and the people of Israel, In 2 Samuel 21, we learn that God punished Israel with famine because of the guilt of Saul who is said to have killed some of them and wanted to kill them all. It is only when David reparations by handing over the seven descendants of Saul to the Gibeonites to be hung in Saul's home town, that God answered the prayers of the people of Israel.

It is my understanding from this that God does not have intentions to wipe out the people of Canaan from the face of the earth but would rather have them close to Himself in His House of Worship.

So whose land is it? It is the Land of Canaan and Israelites are just Stewards.